The first five ayaat of this sura are known as the first ones to be revealed to the Prophet (pbuh). The sura is concerned with the awakening of the intelligence and self-knowledge that is already within the reader. It begins with the injunction of ʻIqraʼ – Read. Then it refers to the creation of the human being out of a clot. It draws attention to the ungratefulness of the human being because he sees himself independent of Divinity. The sura ends with a command to prostration, and of drawing closer to Allah. It emphasises the fact that the art of reading or literacy forms the basis for civilised life and culture.