The sura begins with the prediction of the victory of the Romans over the Persians 9 years before the event. It is also indicative to the victory at Badr.
This leads to the central theme of the sura, which is the abundance of the signs of divinity in society, within oneself and in nature alluding that the rise and fall of nations is nothing compared to the signs of divinity all around us. The inability of many human beings not to be able to recognise Divinity even with these signs is a result of their following their own whims.
The human being is pre-programmed with ‘fitra’ – an operating system which is Allah’s design for human values – gratitude, humility, humanity, mercy, love, justice, etc. It is revelation which activates it into practical manifestation and an inclination that truth is good (30:30).
There is a challenge to those who cover up the truth to substantiate their claims and the inevitability of accountability where no excuses will be accepted.
The sura ends with a directive not to underestimate the strength of belief.