The chapter was revealed in Madina soon after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah towards the end of 6AH and begins with a constitutional phrase of fulfilling all agreements and laws concerning hajj and halal food. The completion of religion revealed at Ghadeer is at the end of verse 3. Instructions for wudhoo and tayammum (ritual purity) follow.
The chapter transitions into the covenants made by Allah with the people of the book who broke them by exaggerating claims of Divinity to Prophet Isa and the refusal of the Bani Israel to obey Prophet Musa. At the same time there is normalisation of relationships with the people of the Book with boundaries.
The story of the two sons of Prophet Adam is told where Qaabil kills Haabil out of jealousy and a crow shows him how to bury his brother’s body. Divine judgement to establish justice follows instructing those who believe to be impartial and just even when dealing with those who show enmity. Justice to go hand in hand with love, brotherhood, care and concern for humanity. A directive to seek a means of nearness (intercession) to Divinity and to strive in His way follows.
The chapter continues with a discussion to enjoy the good things given by Allah but to guard against excesses and not to indulge in swearing, gambling, intoxicants, superstitions, and violation of the Ka’ba.
It ends with the miracles of Prophet Isa including a mention of the table of food (Al Maaida) from the heavens and a final statement of Allah’s complete Control and Power over all things.