‘Adl literally means to put everything in its rightful place. Sometimes ‘adl is confused with equality. Equality is not a condition for justice, e.g. Justice in a classroom does not mean that all the students are given equal marks; but that marks are given according to ability and effort. Similarly, it would not be ‘adl (justice) if a large oak tree was given the same roots as that of a small sapling.
‘Adala is believing in nine things:
- Allah is for all His creations a just Master.
- Allah never does anything wrong (bad).
- Allah does not fail to do anything that is necessary.
- There is no injustice in Allah’s decisions.
- When Allah tests us or gives a command, Allah does not ask beyond what we can do.
- Allah will always reward those who obey.
- It is for Allah to decide if He so desires to punish.
- Adhab will never go beyond what an individual deserves.
- Allah does not force anyone to do evil and then punish him.
Believing in the ‘Adl (Justice) of Allah means that one should not be in a position of accusing Allah of injustice and favouritism. If Allah did something that was unfair, then 4 possibilities arise:
- Allah does it knowingly – which would make Him Dhaalim (unjust)
- Allah does it unknowingly – which would make him Jahil (ignorant)
- Allah has been forced to do it – which makes Him Mohtaaj (reliant on others)
- Allah does it as an amusement – which does not make Him Hakim (wise)
Since Allah is not dhalim, jahil, mohtaaj or unwise as Allah is Perfect, then the question of Allah being unjust does not arise.